The Lousy Canuck’s ‘Entitlement Culture’

In a righteous and lengthy rant over at Lousy Canuck, Jason Thibeault discusses the culture of entitlement common in the conservative mindset and shows how that mentality is found in everything from right wingers to anti-feminists to GamerGaters to slym*pitters and more. It’s captivating and well worth the read.

There’s a turn of phrase that’s been around for a while now: “entitlement culture”. The right wing has this meme that they’ve been foisting on the public that people who are on welfare, people who are on disability, people who are on social security, believe themselves to have certain “entitlements” and that their laziness — read, their expectation that they should get these things — suggests by itself that they shouldn’t actually get what they think they deserve. Interestingly enough, the targets of these particular memes are uniformly the underprivileged — those who are the hardest done by this society, those who have fallen on hard times and aren’t even allowed bootstraps by which to pull themselves back up.

It’s especially noteworthy that the language around this phenomenon is already so polluted by people horrified at the idea that people with nothing might actually need resources to help pull them out of the depths of their despair, and that this is one of those times when the truth of who has a sense of undeserved entitlement is the inverse — it’s always the people who already have it all and think they won it fair and square. The people who’ve spread the meme so successfully have turned the whole argument on its head. And what’s worse is, this same argument about entitlement is happening over and over again, in every single community, under a number of different names, about topics as diverse as birth control and police brutality and video games. In every case, the language is twisted to the advantage of the right-wing reactionary mindset, and somehow we who are anywhere left of Glenn Beck are caught flat-footed by it all, time and again.

There are dozens of disparate threads within my fields of interest with which I’m going to attempt to pick them all up and weave into a single unified tapestry. I may jump around quite a bit, apologies in advance. I’m going to have to start by defining some terms, before I start giving you some examples of what I’m talking about.

Read the rest of this glorious takedown of the true culture of entitlement at Lousy Canuck.

The Lousy Canuck’s ‘Entitlement Culture’
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The Lousy Canuck's 'Entitlement Culture'

In a righteous and lengthy rant over at Lousy Canuck, Jason Thibeault discusses the culture of entitlement common in the conservative mindset and shows how that mentality is found in everything from right wingers to anti-feminists to GamerGaters to slym*pitters and more. It’s captivating and well worth the read.

There’s a turn of phrase that’s been around for a while now: “entitlement culture”. The right wing has this meme that they’ve been foisting on the public that people who are on welfare, people who are on disability, people who are on social security, believe themselves to have certain “entitlements” and that their laziness — read, their expectation that they should get these things — suggests by itself that they shouldn’t actually get what they think they deserve. Interestingly enough, the targets of these particular memes are uniformly the underprivileged — those who are the hardest done by this society, those who have fallen on hard times and aren’t even allowed bootstraps by which to pull themselves back up.

It’s especially noteworthy that the language around this phenomenon is already so polluted by people horrified at the idea that people with nothing might actually need resources to help pull them out of the depths of their despair, and that this is one of those times when the truth of who has a sense of undeserved entitlement is the inverse — it’s always the people who already have it all and think they won it fair and square. The people who’ve spread the meme so successfully have turned the whole argument on its head. And what’s worse is, this same argument about entitlement is happening over and over again, in every single community, under a number of different names, about topics as diverse as birth control and police brutality and video games. In every case, the language is twisted to the advantage of the right-wing reactionary mindset, and somehow we who are anywhere left of Glenn Beck are caught flat-footed by it all, time and again.

There are dozens of disparate threads within my fields of interest with which I’m going to attempt to pick them all up and weave into a single unified tapestry. I may jump around quite a bit, apologies in advance. I’m going to have to start by defining some terms, before I start giving you some examples of what I’m talking about.

Read the rest of this glorious takedown of the true culture of entitlement at Lousy Canuck.

The Lousy Canuck's 'Entitlement Culture'

Survivor Stories: Stephen Barton

The United States has an epidemic of gun violence.  Each year, more than 30,000 people are killed by firearms.  More than half of those are the result of firearm related suicides.  Discussions about gun control often center on reducing the numbers of firearm related deaths.  Lost in that discussion, however, is that many people have had their lives irrevocably altered by firearms.  They may not have died, but they have been affected by the gun violence in the US. This is Stephen Barton’s survivor story, the final edition in the gun violence series by Rolling Stone.

Continue reading “Survivor Stories: Stephen Barton”

Survivor Stories: Stephen Barton

Static show a good move toward greater racial acceptance

Static, aka Virgil Hawkins, is an African-American superhero created in 1993 as part of DC Comics’ Milestone Imprint.  The creators of Milestone, Denys Cowan, Michael Davis, Derek T. Dingle, and the late Dwayne McDuffie sought to add some much-needed diversity to mainstream American comic books. Deliberately patterned after Peter Parker (and taking his name from a black man denied entry into the University of Florida’s law school in 1949), Static is a comic book nerd, a video game aficionado, and a gifted inventor. After exposure to an experimental chemical, Hawkins gained the ability to manipulate electromagnetic energy and took the superhero name Static. Along with Hardware, Icon, and Blood Syndicate, Static received his own series as part of the debut of the Milestone Universe. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, Milestone Comics was a short-lived endeavor (they closed their comic book division in 1997, though they continue on today as a licensing company).  Static would go on to have his own animated series, Static Shockwhich lasted four seasons on the Kids’ WB! block.  He also joined the cast of the WB!’s Young Justice animated series with the second season. With the cancellation of Young Justice, and no longer having his own comic book, fans of Static were probably fearful that the character would languish in comic book limbo.

But worry not. Not only will he not be limbo bound, he’ll be the title character in an all new digital series. Warner Bros. (parent company of DC Comics) has unveiled Blue Ribbon Content, a new digital production unit. Blue Ribbon Content has several live-action, short form series in development. One of those series is Static Shock.

Static Shock — Writer/producer/director Reginald Hudlin (Best Picture Oscar nominee for producing Django Unchained) leads the creative team behind a live-action adaptation of Static Shock, featuring the African-American super hero Static, aka Virgil Ovid Hawkins. Static Shock is based on the Static comic co-created by the late Dwayne McDuffie with co-writer Robert L. Washington III and artist John Paul Leon, which was originally published by the DC Comics imprint Milestone Comics and, later, by DC Comics. Milestone Media co-founder/comic book artist/TV producer Denys Cowan (the original Static Shock animated series) is collaborating with Hudlin on the new Static Shock.

No word yet on when the series will debut, nor how long it will last, but this is good news for fans.

This is also good news from a diversity standpoint. Like Marvel Comics, one of the complaints about DC Comics is a lack of diversity. Traditionally, the monthly output of both companies has not seen many titles featuring African-American characters (or women, or LGBT people).  Certainly both companies are making strides in gender diversity (Marvel has 10+ books led by female characters, with DC not far behind), but they still have a long way to go in representing LGBT characters and People of Color.  This also holds true for both companies’ cinematic universes (although it should be noted that DC recently announced solo movies for both Wonder Woman and Cyborg, while yesterday, Marvel revealed its slate of movies for the next 5 years, which includes both a Captain Marvel and a Black Panther movie).

Diversity is important for a few reasons. Despite what some angry white men might think, exposure to positive, successful media images of African-Americans tends to improve racial attitudes. What this means is that the more people are exposed to images of African-Americans that represent them as well-rounded people who can be courageous, powerful, heroic, and successful, the more people begin to reject racial stereotypes. This can be seen in the success of NBC’s The Cosby Show, which helped change the way American viewed African-Americans.

Ever since television’s beginning in 1939, Blacks have often been portrayed as custodians, maids, servants, clowns, or buffoons. These negative perceptions started to appear in Black sitcoms such as Amos ‘n Andy (1964) and continued in the late 1970s with Good Times. For the most part, Black sitcoms portrayed negative views of Blacks until 1984 with the introduction of The Cosby Show. As a result of The Cosby Show, perceptions of Blacks on television were altered. Black roles of today have come a long way since Amos ‘n Andy (where Blacks were viewed as poor and living in the ghetto). Today, many Black roles avoid much of the racial stereotyping that was characteristic of shows such as Beulah and Julia in the 1960s; Sanford and Son and Good Times in the 1970s. The Cosby Show took the positive perceptions given in most of the earlier Black sitcoms and puts them into one show.

Racial diversity on the small screen is also important for young children. A 2012 study published in Communications Research found that “children are affected when they don’t see themselves on tv”.

In discussing the results of their findings, the authors point to three potential explanations:

  1. Male characters are portrayed as powerful, strong, rational, and the main character, while in contrast, female characters are portrayed as emotional, sensitive, and more likely to be a sidekick or love interest. In contrast to white characters, black male characters are more likely to be depicted as menacing or unruly, and black female characters are more likely to be shown as exotic and sexually available. As a result, young white boys have greater access to positive media representation. Social identity theory would argue that exposure to this coded messaging helps young white boys believe that anything is possible, and that they can attain, achieve, and be heroes.
  2. If television serves to reinforce gender and racial stereotypes, then social identity theory also predicts that the white girls, black girls, and black boys in the study used messages from the media to evaluate themselves, and that these comparisons can impact self esteem. In addition to messages kids get from family members, peers, community members, and other areas in their lives, if white and black girls and black boys also absorb messages from the media, it could impact their self esteem if they do not see themselves as successful, as main characters, or as heroes.
  3. If kids are watching television, this might be displacing real-life experiences that could otherwise build self esteem. (The study found that black kids watched 10 hours more of television than white kids did.) Arguably, these kids could be learning more about themselves through activities other than television, which could otherwise have raised self esteem. (The authors note that this theory does not explain why watching television hurts self esteem for girls and kids of color but raises self esteem in white boys who watch a lot of TV.)

Co-researcher Nicole Martins explained the contrast between white male, female, and black male characters on television:

“Regardless of what show you’re watching, if you’re a white male, things in life are pretty good for [people who look like] you. You tend to be in positions of power, you have prestigious occupations, high education, glamorous houses, a beautiful wife, with very little portrayals of how hard you worked to get there.

“If you are a girl or a woman, what you see is that women on television are not given a variety of roles. The roles that they see are pretty simplistic; they’re almost always one-dimensional and focused on the success they have because of how they look, not what they do or what they think or how they got there.

“Young black boys are getting the opposite message: that there is not lots of good things that you can aspire to. If we think about those kinds of messages, that’s what’s responsible for the impact.”

We need to change the messages being sent to our youth. We need them to know that no matter their ethnicity, gender, disability, sexuality, or gender identity, they can be powerful, successful, and heroic. A show like Static can go a long way to showing our youth that the sky is the limit.

Static show a good move toward greater racial acceptance

Be Judgmental About Everything.

This post on ‘judging’ is on point. This is exactly how I feel. Judging is incredibly important in our day to day lives, but it has somehow become demonized (in part, I think bc of religious teaching that tell people “thou shalt not judge”).

Be Judgmental About Everything.

The Best of Humanity: Caring for an orphaned bat

Lil’ Drac is a short-tailed bat who was orphaned by his mother (apparently bats are extremely sensitive during maternity season and if disturbed, will abandon their young). Thanks to the Bat World Sanctuary in Weatherford, Texas, Lil’ Drac has received much love and care.

(via Motivious)

The Best of Humanity: Caring for an orphaned bat

More than meets the eye

The Transformers were a big hit in the 1980s.

Optimus Prime. Ratchet. Wheeljack. Bumblebee. Ironhide. Omega Supreme. Brawl. Megatron. Starscream. Skywarp. Soundwave. Ravage. Laserbeak.

Autobots vs Decepticons in a battle of good versus evil played out on the small screen for several seasons and a beloved (by me anyways) movie that wrecked my world by killing Optimus Prime (from what I’ve read, a lot of people were not pleased). Director Michael Bay combined his love of mindless explosions! explosions! explosions! with a wafer thin plot, a dash of sexism, some really horrible dialogue, characters acting in ways that are completely nonsensical, and those robots in disguise to bring the Transformers-live action versions no less-to the big screen in 2007 (thus far with four movies, and a fifth on the way).

The Transformers were created in a joint effort between the American company Hasbro, and the Japanese company Takara Tomy as a line of toys in 1984. As a kid, I remember those toys being quite popular. Everyone wanted to own the Transformers toys (I was partial to the combiner robots, such as the Constructicons, the Predacons, or the Protectobots).  For all that the toys were fun, the young me wished that cars could really transform into robots. But of course such things are fiction, no?

Maybe in the 1980s, but not in 2014.

Two Japanese companies, BRAVE ROBOTICS Inc., Asratec Corp. and Tomy Co., Ltd. have created a prototype robot that transforms into a car.

Cool huh?

In robot mode it can move 1 km/hr while it can achieve 10 km/hr in car mode. This robot is only the first step. The companies aim to finish completing a 5m tall, full scale robot by 2020.

More than meets the eye

The Fabulous Art of Michael Lee Lunsford

I just discovered this guy over at Comics Alliance, and wow, his art is quite nice!

Here’s a promotional poster for a faux Spider-Man comic:

Here is a great image of Carol Danvers, aka Captain Marvel:

Next up is a shot of the Darkchylde herself, Magik:

MODOK is such a silly comic book character, but I’d love to see him on the big screen (incidentally, his name is an acronym for Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing):

The Fabulous Art of Michael Lee Lunsford

Police Brutality Link Round Up

Sleeping 7-year-old girl shot in head during no-knock police raid on wrong home

Warning: This is likely to piss you the fuck off.

On the evening of May 16, 2010, the Detroit Police Department’s Special Response Team (SRT) prepared for a surprise raid to arrest a wanted man. A surveillance unit had been monitoring the duplex in which he lived throughout the day and a no-knock raid was scheduled for just after midnight.

Police staged a so-called “safety briefing” shortly before the raid; undoubtedly focusing on their own safety rather than the safety of unknown innocents behind the doors they were about to kick in. Officers were briefed that they’d be entering a “possible dope den,” in which the suspect “might be armed” and might even possess “dangerous dogs.”

Police neglected to account for — or flatly disregarded — the safety of any potential children that might be present. Besides the glaring presence of toys strewn about the lawn and front porch, it is unlikely that investigators could have missed the presence of four young children and multi-generational family in the opposite unit during their surveillance of the duplex.

The raid commenced at roughly 12:40 a.m.  The Special Response Team arrived in its armored vehicle with a warrant to arrest Chauncey Owens, who was known to stay with his fiancée at 4056 Lillibridge Street.

Armed with MP5 submachine guns, adrenaline, and an unhealthy fear for officer safety, the raiders shuffled past the toys that littered the front yard and ignored the two distinct street address signs hanging on either side of the shared porch of the multi-unit building; 4056 was on the left, 4054 was on the right.

A man named Mark Robinson was detained on the sidewalk while walking his dog, just before the raid. He repeatedly told officers, “There are children in the house,” yet his warnings went unheeded. He was pinned to the ground with officers’ boots on his neck and back, reported attorney Geoffrey Fieger.

The raid team was accompanied by an embedded cable TV crew, filming for A&E’s “The First 48.” With full bravado, the SRT put on a display of maximum force for the fans of police-state-adoring reality television.

Without warning, officers simultaneously attempted to breach entrances of two discrete living units of the duplex: the suspects’ location and the neighboring residence. What occurred at 4054 Lillibridge — where the suspect did NOT live — would be devastating.

In mere seconds, masked police officers stormed the porch and smashed the window of the neighbors’ downstairs apartment. They immediately tossed in a concussion grenade and kicked down the door. An officer discharged his rifle, and an innocent little girl named Aiyana Stanley-Jones was dead.

* * * *

And if you thought that one was bad enough, here’s one to make you fucking see RED:

Man charged with breaking a trooper’s fist with his face

Around 8:20 p.m. on March 8th, 2010, police received a 9-1-1 call regarding a car that had failed to stop after a minor traffic collision. The accident resulted in no injuries and no damage, but one of the drivers did not stop to exchange information. Pennsylvania State Police (PSP) dispatched troopers to investigate this alleged hit-and-run.

A car driven by Robert Leone, 31 at the time, matched the basic description of the car in question. Mr. Leone was driving just across the Pennsylvania border from his home in Vestal, NY. He had just finished star gazing at the Kopernick Observatory and Science Center and decided to go for a ride in the country while listening to his favorite music. He had consumed no alcohol or illegal substances, but it seems that his decision-making abilities may have been affected by his legally-prescribed medication used to treat his bipolar disorder.

PSP attempted to pull over Mr. Leone, who was traveling at a speed significantly UNDER the posted speed limit — 10 to 30 mph under. Leone stated at first he did not think the trooper was trying to stop him as he believed that he had done nothing wrong prior to the encounter. Police dash-cam video clearly showed Mr. Leone driving very slowly and in a very controlled manner. The only vehicles ever seen crossing the center line or driving erratically were the state police cars that were involved in this low speed following — contrary to sworn statements later given by the troopers.

The five marked cruisers following Mr. Leone could have easily boxed in Mr. Leone at low speed and caused him to stop. Instead, the troopers deployed stop-sticks and rammed his vehicle. A “PIT maneuver” was used to smash Leone into a rock wall, while still at low speed.

Once his car was immobilized, the senior trooper on scene, Corporal Roger Stipcak, stood on top of Mr. Leone’s hood and ordered him out of his car while aiming a taser at him. Mr. Leone COULD NOT comply with the trooper’s order because a state police car was intentionally blocking Leone’s driver-side door.

Mr. Leone was then tasered through his open sunroof and forcibly dragged to the ground through the passenger-side door and beaten by fellow troopers. The senior trooper who was standing on the hood of Leone’s car was then seen jumping directly onto Leone’s back from the hood of the car.

“You’ve got a long f***ing night ahead,” the officer menaced. “Do ya hear me?? Do ya f***ing hear me?!”

This was but the first threat of many Mr. Leone was going to receive over the next 11 hours. It was also the mildest. At no time was Leone videoed resisting or attempting to strike the officers.

After his first beating he was handcuffed and questioned. At that point Leone was arrested and placed in the back of a patrol car. Without advising Mr. Leone of his constitutional rights he was questioned a second time and responded with respectful answers of “yes sir,” and “no sir.”

During the questioning, the trooper accused Leone of intentionally spitting in the trooper’s face and used that alleged behavior as a reason to beat Mr. Leone — who was still handcuffed. The trooper then hog-tied the victim.

“Who do you think you’re messing with?” one officer challenged. “We’re the Pennsylvania State Police… it’s not just some chumps.”

After analyzing the audio portion of the dash-cam it appears that the trooper fabricated the spitting incident in order to justify the beating, even though spitting does not allow an officer to beat a prisoner.

An ambulance had initially been called to transport Mr. Leone, who had suffered multiple injuries. Instead, the trooper who had broken his hand while punching Leone received medical attention, and Mr. Leone — who was handcuffed and hog-tied — was transported to the hospital in the back of a patrol car.

The above is just a portion of the horrible shit Robert Leone went through at the hands of the PA State Police and the justice system.  God, this shit makes me want to go demolish an abandoned building with my bare hands. The abuses of power demonstrated in this article are massive. There’s a part of me that still wants to believe in a just world, in the hopes that these cops will be punished, but the more rational part of me realizes that the Just World Fallacy is just that.  Many times, people get away with all manner of horrible acts, from brutally beating a suspect to killing an unarmed black man.   The United States has turned into a police state, where police officers routinely abuse their power, brutally beating or killing suspects, conducting raids on peoples’ homes without ensuring the suspect is in the home, shooting pets, demanding obeisance from the public, circling the wagons to protect their brethren, and more. They’re practically unaccountable, and so often when they commit a wrong, they don’t get punished. I wish I knew how to change the system, bc it needs to be done. Too many people are suffering.

* * * *

LA cop reportedly kicked cuffed man’s head like ‘a football player kicking a field goal’

Case in point ↑

At least in this case, the police officer has been suspended and an investigation is pending.

According to the LA Times, one police official who has seen the video said the kick  looked like “a football player kicking a field goal.” Another official called it  “horrific.”

Three other officers involved in the arrest — as well as a sergeant who arrived on the scene afterward — have been taken off active duty while the LAPD investigates the incident.

The suspect, identified as Clinton Alford, 22, sustained a gash on his ear and was taken to a hospital for stitches and a head scan following his arrest.

Alford was booked on suspicion of drug possession and resisting arrest and later released on his own recognizance after pleading not guilty.

Police authorities stated that Alford was stopped by the officers who were responding to a detective’s radio call for help in locating a robbery suspect.

It was later ascertained that Alford was not the robbery suspect they were seeking.

According to Alford, he was riding his bike when a car pulled up behind him and he was commanded to stop. Alford said the speaker never identified himself as a police officer and when his bike was grabbed from behind, he jumped off and ran. After a brief pursuit, Alford was taken into custody by two officers and can be seen in the video voluntarily dropping to the ground and placing his hands behind his back.

Moments later another officer arrived and reportedly rushed at the prone Alford either stomping or kicking him in the head. The officer then repeatedly struck Alford in the head with his elbows while the other two officers held him down.

According to Alford, “I was just praying that they wouldn’t kill me. I just closed my eyes and tried to hold on.”

One of the sources who saw the video described Alford looking like “a rag doll,” as officer hauled him away.

According to the arrest record, the officers at the scene were identified as Julio Cortez, Joshua Tornek, Ruben Rosas, and Richard Garcia, with Garcia identified as the officer who administered the beating.

LA police Chief Charlie Beck issued a statement saying he was, “extremely concerned about this particular use of force.”

The police chief ought to be concerned. That’s excessive force. There’s no indication that Alford was resisting, and even if he was, minimal use of force should be employed unless the four officers arresting one man were in imminent danger (or the public was).  Too many police officers jump straight to excessive force for the most minor offenses. It’s like law enforcement attracts hyper aggressive, authoritarian assholes who enjoy lording it over the rest of us.

 * * * *

Law enforcement official with the Bureau of Indian Affairs pulls gun on Uber driver

Driver James Brothers said he picked up a group from a bar Oct. 20 and dropped off a man and woman at a party after they had a disagreement with a third passenger.

He said the remaining passenger, later identified as 44-year-old Byron McDonald, acted paranoid after he attempted to make small talk.

“Typically I’ll ask people where they’re from or from out of town, but he just wouldn’t give me any info,” Brothers said.

Then the passenger began asking strange questions in a slurred voice.

“He asked, ‘Do you want to live or die?’” Brothers told KSL-TV. “So I said, ‘Well, I want to live, of course.’”

McDonald asked the driver about his 3-year-old daughter and girlfriend – neither of which Brothers has – as they arrived at the downtown Hilton.

Then McDonald put a gun to the driver’s head and then moved the weapon down so it was pointed at Brothers’ side.

“I just thought, ‘I’m going to bail because I’m not going to sit around and wait for what’s going to happen,’” Brothers said.

Brothers said he grabbed his phone from the dashboard, pulled the keys from the ignition, and tried to jump out the driver’s side door.

McDonald grabbed his shirt collar and tried to pull the driver back into the vehicle, but he broke free and fled.

Brothers called 911 as he ran away, and police arrested McDonald – who turned out to be a police officer with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

A spokeswoman for the Department of the Interior, which oversees the bureau, said McDonald was on “official travel at the time of the incident.”

McDonald was charged with aggravated assault, a third-degree felony, and attempted kidnapping.

I wasn’t sure whether to file this under ‘Police Brutality’ or ‘Irresponsible Gun Owner’. Ultimately, since this is another case of a law enforcement officer abusing their power, I chose this category.

What the fuck was McDonald doing pulling a gun on a driver for no apparent reason and why do I think he was drunk?

* * * *

Woman on dialysis trampled by cops angry that her son ignored them

LeRoy Hubbard III told WMAQ that two police officers pulled up in a patrol car as he was walking home to his parent’s house on Friday night.

“They say, ‘Come here.’ So, I just keep walking,” Hubbard recalled.

According to Hubbard, officers then forced their way into his home, while his niece, Keeasia, filmed the entire thing.

“They start just going crazy in the house,” he pointed out.

WCAU reported that the video showed Hubbard’s mother, who was on a dialysis machine, being knocked to the floor as police struggled to handcuff him. Eventually, more officers arrived and Hubbard was placed in a chokehold.

“They charged me with assault but how did I assault anybody?” he asked. “They were just basically just assaulting my whole family so I had to give in just to make it stop.”

“I just went outside,” Keeasia said. “It was helicopters, it was police cars, just rushing in for one person.”

Hubbard’s father, Leroy, argued that the incident was “clearly police misconduct.” He said that his son did not have a criminal record, and that officers only treated him that way because he lived in a high crime area.

“They do this all the time,” he remarked. “As far as the police, they do this all the time. They will stop anybody on the street. They want to get lucky, think they’re going to get lucky you know somebody’s probably got something.”

Hubbard was expected in court on Tuesday to face charges for aggravated battery to a police officer.

They attacked him, yet he’s charged with aggravated battery.  Da fuq?!

* * * *

Police Brutality Link Round Up